In 1978, local electric company workers digging near Mexico City’s Metropolitan Cathedral made a discovery that would change the city’s urban landscape forever. It was a massive stone disk depicting the dismembered body of the goddess Coyolxauhqui. According to ancient mythology, she was killed and turned into the moon by her brother Huitzilopochtli, the patron deity of the Aztecs. The finding was incredibly significant because it finally revealed the location of the Templo Mayor, the Aztecs’ most important temple. It had long been believed to be buried directly under the Cathedral itself.

Modern-day Mexico City sits upon what was once known as Lake Texcoco. And on an island within that lake, the Aztecs established their capital city Tenochtitlan, by far the largest and most powerful city in the New World when the Spanish arrived in the early 16th century. But after defeating the Aztecs in battle, Hernan Cortes and his men razed the city and its temples, even filling in the lake.

Mexico City Skyline
The view of North America's largest metropolis

Nearly 500 years since being buried and built over by Hernando Cortes and his group of Conquistadors, remnants of the Aztec Empire continue to defiantly emerge from beneath Mexico City’s surface. To this day, more and more artifacts, monoliths and even temples are being found on a regular basis.

Even without leaving the city limits, visitors to Mexico’s capital can conduct their own archaeological adventure to get closer to the heart of Mesoamerica’s last great native civilization. While there are plenty more Aztec monuments and relics to explore in the city’s outskirts and small neighboring towns, we’re going to be solely focusing on places of significance within Mexico City itself. And all of the locations we’ll be going over below are easily accessible using the city’s highly efficient subway system.

The Aztecs & Their Rise to Power

The Early Days

The Aztecs’ path to become the most dominant force in Mesoamerica was a long and difficult journey. What came to be known as the Aztec civilization was originally a tribe of people called the Mexicas. The modern name for Mexico was derived from this term.

History and mythology have become too intertwined to accurately trace the true origins of the Mexicas. One place they likely did reside in their earlier years, though, was a place known as Aztlan. This is where we get the term ‘Aztec’ from. While nobody knows Aztlan’s exact location, it was likely somewhere in the northern part of what makes up modern-day Mexico. 

As the legend goes, the Mexica lived under oppressive conditions. Their patron deity Huitzilopochtli told them to wander the land in search of a new home, which would be shown to them in the form of a sign. When the Mexicas arrived near Lake Texcoco sometime in the 11th century, they were far from the most dominant group. In their earlier years they were forced to make tributes to their more powerful neighbors.

One of the earliest places the Mexicas settled is the top of Chapultepec Hill. And sometime at the end of the 13th century, for reasons unknown, they were driven out and resettled at a place called Tizapan, where they honed their agricultural skills. The Mexicas were again driven out from their land after supposedly sacrificing the princess of the Culhua! 

After brief stays in places like Chapultepec and Tizapan, the tribe spent some more time as nomads before finally discovering their permanent home – the island of Tenochtitlan. Situated in the middle of Lake Texcoco, the island city was divided up into four sections, likely a mirror of the Mexicas’ cosmological vision. In the center of town they established the Templo Mayor, which grew in size over the centuries as their civilization also expanded in power and influence.

The Ascent

Even after establishing their capital, it was still awhile before the Mexicas would become the most dominant power in the region. They first gained the favor of more powerful groups through intermarriage and by providing vital military aid, especially to the powerful Tepanec king Tezozomoc.

But after the death of this aged king, relations between the Tepanec and Mexicas began to deteriorate. In the 1420’s, together with the nearby city-state of Texcoco, the Mexicas would wage an all-out war against the Tepanec, coming out victorious. What’s known as the ‘Triple Alliance’ soon formed thereafter, with Tenochtitlan allying itself with two other city states, Texcoco and Tlacopan.

The Aztec ruler known as Itzcoatl then began to aggressively expand his territory, with the Mexicas soon controlling most of central Mexico. His nephew and advisor Tlacaelel would prove to be highly influential in the establishment and expansion of the Aztec Empire. Tlacaelel would go on to advise subsequent kings like Moctezuma I, Tizoc and Ahuitzotl. By the time of his death in 1487, the Aztec Empire’s territory even stretched as far as the Pacific and Caribbean coasts.

Under rulers like Ahuitzotl and Moctezuma II, the empire would reach even greater heights. It was the strongest it had ever been when the Spanish arrived in 1519.

The Sudden Downfall

Though Hernan Cortes and his men were greatly outnumbered, the Mexicas had made countless enemies over the years, and the Spanish were able to garner a lot of help and support from other native tribes. A number of other events, such as taking Moctezuma II hostage in his own palace, and inadvertently introducing smallpox to the native population, also greatly helped the Conquistadors.

Though it had been brewing for a couple of years, an all out war between the Spanish and Aztecs finally erupted in the year 1521. It was a close war, but the superior technology of the Spaniards, combined with an Aztec population greatly weakened by the smallpox epidemic, eventually resulted in a Spanish victory. After the fall of Tenochtitlan, most of the prominent Aztec buildings were toppled and built over, disappearing from the landscape for good. Or did they?

Confusingly, the term ‘Aztec’ is often incorrectly used a blanket term to refer to any of the ancient civilizations that existed in central Mexico. The mysterious culture that built the massive pyramids at Teotihuacan, it should be noted, were not the Aztecs. In fact, they built their massive pyramids over a thousand years before the Mexicas rose to prominence. The Mexicas were apparently just as mystified by these pyramids, along with the Toltec pyramids at Tula, as we are today. These earlier civilizations greatly influenced Aztec culture, religion and of course, architecture.

Tenochtitlan & The Templo Mayor

The site of what we now known as Templo Mayor started off as a small shrine erected in 1390 AD. But as the Mexicas grew in power and as the Aztec Empire expanded its territory, the temple complex and its central pyramid gradually increased in size.

Looking at the site now, it can be hard to believe that the central pyramid of Templo Mayor once stood at nearly 60 meters, or 200 feet high. That’s nearly as high as Teotihuacan’s mammoth Pyramid of the Sun!

The main pyramid is said to have been constructed over the original shrine during the reign of Itzcoatl (1427-1440). Subsequent rulers then continued to build larger pyramids over the existing bases all the way up until the early 16th century.

Templo Mayor Model
A model of the Templo Mayor at National Museum of Anthropology

 

In total there are seven layers to the main pyramid, although much of its final incarnation was destroyed by the Spanish. Walking around the archaeological site today, it can be rather confusing trying to decipher what you’re really looking at. But thankfully, helpful informational plaques can be found around the area.

Furthermore, the excellent Templo Mayor Museum, located just next to the archaeological site itself, helps visitors decode the structure and symbolism of the temple. And it also houses all sorts of artifacts and offerings discovered at the site and around the former island capital of Tenochtitlan, which now sits under Mexico City’s Centro Historico district. From the 1970’s, up until today, more and more artifacts continue to be discovered: figurines, urns, jewelry, ritual offerings and yes, even human sacrificial remains.

notable Features

The Pyramid

The central feature of the Templo Mayor was, without a doubt, its central pyramid. Notably, the pyramid was divided into two halves, each with its own towering staircase. One was dedicated to the rain god Tlaloc, and the other to Huitzilopochtli, the Mexicas’ own patron god. 

It was on and around this double-pyramid that important religious rites, coronation ceremonies and even human sacrifices took place. Furthermore, the pyramids were placed in such a way that the sun would rise directly between the two top shrines at every equinox.

Different stages of the pyramid's construction revealed at once
Templo Mayor Pyramid Vertical
The twin pyramid staircase from the 3rd stage of construction (1427 - 1440)

The Skull Rack

The skull rack, or tzompantli, was where the local rulers display the skulls of their sacrificial victims and war captives. The Aztecs weren’t the first society to use these, as the practice had already been common in Mesoamerica for centuries. 

The skulls had holes drilled in them and were connected horizontally to one another with wooden sticks. They were then divided into rows, forming a large wall of skulls. It’s estimated that there were once tens of thousands of skulls on display in Tenochtitlan!

The Serpent Wall

The center of Tenochtitlan, the Sacred Precinct, was surrounded on all sides by a wall, on top of which was a carving of a large snake. Serpents have long been important symbols in Mesoamerica, not to mention a number of Asian cultures.

Serpent symbology can be attributed to a lot of different things, but in Aztec mythology they’re primarily associated with the earth and fertility. Some serpents at Templo Mayor are also believed to represent the birthplace of Huitzilopochtli, while frog sculptures represent Tlaloc.

Casa de las Aguilas

Known as ‘the House of Eagles’ in English, this enclosed structure is known for its painted reliefs and impressive sculptures. Apparently, this was a place where special rituals took place away from the public eye, in contrast to the open-air pyramid area.

Some of the notable sculptures found here include the underworld god Mictlantecutli (pictured at the end of the article) as well as a man dressed in an eagle costume (pictured in the next section). This is believed to be a depiction of the god Huitzilopochtli, who’s often associated with eagles.

Prominent Deities

Huitzilopochtli

Huitzilopochtli was the Mexicas’ patron god, and they believed it was he who led to them to their promised land of Tenochtitlan. As the legend goes, the sign they were given was an eagle on a cactus with a serpent in its mouth. Today, this symbol is used on the flag of Mexico.

Huitzilopochtli was the Aztecs’ main god of war and he was also considered to be a solar deity. His mother was the goddess Coatlicue, a deity commonly associated with earth and nature. 

As the story goes, Coatlicue suddenly became pregnant after a bundle of feathers fell down on her. Her hundreds of children, which included Coyolxauhqui, were embarrassed and enraged, and plotted to kill their mother.

But Huitzilopochtli emerged from his mother’s womb, already fully grown, and dismembered his sister before she could carry out the plan. He then threw her head into the sky, which became the moon. Meanwhile, the hundreds of other siblings turned into stars.

Tlaloc

Tlaloc is the Aztec god of rain. As a corn-growing agricultural society, the Mexicas worshipped Tlaloc in hopes of abundant rain and bountiful crops. But on the other hand, this deity was feared for his ability to bring lightning and floods. It was imperative, then, that Tlaloc be regularly ‘fed’ in the form of offerings.

Tlaloc’s shrine occupied the north, or right half of Templo Mayor’s main pyramid. This half of the pyramid is said to have been painted blue, a color commonly associated with the rain god.

Aside from the main pyramid, various depictions of Tlaloc were found all over the Templo Mayor complex. A number of Tlaloc braziers have been kept in place on site, while a great many more are now in the Templo Mayor Museum.

One disturbing aspect of Tlaloc worship is the use of children as sacrificial victims to appease him. It was likely believed that the spilling of their tears, another symbol of the deity, pleased Tlaloc during rituals. The brazier in the image above was found in the Casa de las Aguilas, and is a somewhat rare depiction of the god himself crying.

 

Coyolxauhqui Disk

Coyolxauhqui

Much like in Eastern religions such as Hinduism, the Aztecs were keen on depicting the dualities of nature in their art and myths. The story above about Huitzilopochtli and Coyolxauhqui, for instance, represents the interplay between the male and female sides of nature (solar and lunar).

The Aztecs, however, took things way farther than mere symbols or stories. The disk pictured to the left was found nearby the Huitzilopochtli pyramid among a number of female skeletons.

This implies that in reenactments of the myth, the female ‘actors’ were likely killed and dismembered in real life before being thrown off the pyramid and onto the disk below.

Tlaltecuhtli

A similar duality concept is also represented by the deity Tlaltecuhtli, although in this case, in the form of a single god. Among other things, Tlaltecuhtli is representative of both earth and sky as well as night and day. Furthermore, the deity is considered to be both male and female.

The monolith pictured to the right was discovered as recently as 2006, and is believed to date back to the year 1502. It was perhaps used to mark the death of Ahuitzotl, one of the Aztec Empire’s most feared rulers.

Other Deities

The deities above could be considered the main ones represented around the Templo Mayor complex. But the Aztecs worshipped a great many more. Quetzalcoatl was an important god to the Aztecs and plays a major role in their creation myths. The ‘Plumed Serpent’ was also revered by the Mayans, Toltecs and the mysterious builders of Teotihuacan.

Coatlicue, the mother of both Huitzilopochtli and Coyolxauhqui, is considered to be the main earth goddess. She was evoked in rituals related to agriculture or fertility. Tezcatlipoca, meanwhile, was the main god worshipped in the Aztecs’ annual Toxcatl ceremony. He was the god of night, magic and obsidian. And Tonatiuh was considered to be the acting sun of our current era, also known as the ‘fifth sun.’

Around the Area

As mentioned and pictured above, the Templo Mayor Museum is located just next to the archaeological ruins. This is where you’ll find many of the important discoveries made during excavations around the area. And it’s also a great place to learn about Aztec history and religion. Together with the ruins, you can expect to spend at least half a day at Templo Mayor.

Teotihuacan Jade Mask
A jade mask which the Aztecs took from Teotihuacan and kept at the Templo Mayor
Metropolitan Cathedral Mexico City
Inside the cathedral

Just next to and visible from the ruins is the Metropolitan Cathedral. One of the most important landmarks of the city, its history will forever be intertwined with the Spanish conquest of Tenochtitlan, as stones from the pyramid were used in its construction. The current cathedral is not the original, though, as it was rebuilt starting in the year 1573, after the first one began to sink. For many years, the cathedral was the home of the Aztec Sun Stone which is now kept in the National Museum of Anthropology.

Also around the area is the next item on our list, the National Palace, or Palacio Nacional.

GETTING THERE: The Templo Mayor complex and museum, along with the Zocalo, National Palace and Metropolitan Cathedral, are all located within Mexico City’s Centro Historico District. The easiest way to get there would be to get off at the Zocalo subway station on Line 2. Of course, depending on where you’re staying, it might be possible to just walk.

  • Seminario 8, Centro Histórico, Cuauhtémoc
  • 9:00 - 17:00
  • Closed Mon.
  • Mex$ 70 (for both ruins and museum)
Templo Mayor Ruins and Cathedral

The National Palace

Moctezuma II, the last independent Aztec ruler, lived in an extravagant palace from where he also carried out administrative duties. But that wasn’t all. The neighboring structures contained opulent private gardens and even a zoo! The premises were said to house ocelots, bears, mountain lions and possibly crocodiles. Even more odd was the “human zoo.” This portion of the complex was home to albinos and people born with various birth deformities, quite similar to the circus ‘freak shows’ popular throughout Europe and the United States. 

The entire palace complex together was referred to by the Spanish as the “New Houses.” And it was somewhere within the New House complex that Hernan Cortes was invited to stay by Moctezuma II upon his arrival in the city. It was also here that Cortes and his men held the Aztec ruler hostage, forcing him to rule according to Cortes’s orders.

 

Later, after the Spanish succeeded in conquering and razing Tenochtitlan, the rubble of the New Houses were used to construct a brand new palace for Cortes. The palace as we know it today was largely rebuilt in the 17th century, though. And later on, the Spanish monarchy purchased the palace from the Cortes family, keeping ownership of it until Mexican independence in 1820. 

Today, the National Palace is the home of the Federal Treasury as well as Mexico’s president.

The Great Tenochtitlan by Diego Rivera
Tenochtitlan, as depicted in the background of "El mercado de Tlatelolco" by Diego Rivera

Nowadays, the National Palace is perhaps best known by visitors for its large and colorful murals by Diego Rivera. Say what you will about his political views or personal life, but there’s no denying that Rivera played a large part in promoting Mexican indigenous pride at a time when it was largely taboo. 

Painted between 1929 and 1951, the murals depict different pre-Hispanic civilizations of Mexico. The Aztecs and Tenochtitlan, of course, are also included. The Aztec painting offers an excellent glimpse of how the city probably would’ve looked from afar.

Palacio Nacional Moctezuma Ruins

Off to the side on the ground floor, don’t miss the chance for a peak into the building’s ancient past. Part of an Aztec-era staircase has been found during excavation work near the building. A number of ritual offerings and ceramics have also been found underneath the National Palace. And the base of the column from the building’s time as the Spanish Viceroy Palace is still clearly evident. 

Moctezuma II’s palace complex was very large, though, and most remnants of those buildings have been found elsewhere in the neighborhood. One of the most notable discoveries is part of Moctezuma’s old meditation room which was painted completely black.

  • Plaza de la Constitución S/N, Centro
  • 9:00 - 17:00
  • Closed Mon.
  • Free (Need to leave original passport copy at entrance)

Chapultepec & The Sun Stone

Chapultepec Park, in the western part of the city, acts as a vital lung for such a congested metropolis. Today it’s mainly known for its myriad of museums. Chief among them is the National Museum of Anthropology, which, in addition to the Templo Mayor museum, is one of the best places to learn about the Aztecs. But Chapultepec Park itself is significant to Aztec history for another reason, as it was one of the original homes of the Mexicas upon their arrival in the region.

Chapultepec View
The view from Chapultepec Hill, from which the Mexicas would've overlooked Lake Texcoco

Sometime in the 13th century, the Mexicas settled on top of the hill, which today is occupied by the ornate Chapultepec Castle. One of the reasons for this was the abundance of fresh spring water accessible from the hill. That meant that they could live peacefully at the top without worrying about their water supply getting cut off by rival tribes. And the hill had also been previously occupied by the Toltecs and builders of Teotihuacan, two cultures which the Mexicas idolized.

If the 686 hectare Chapultepec Park is known for any one thing, it’s the National Museum of Anthropology. This museum covers not just the Aztecs, but indigenous tribes and ancient civilizations from all over Mexico, including the Mayans, Toltecs and Olmecs. 

While the summary of Aztec history covers most of the bases already gone over by the Templo Mayor museum, the Museum of Anthropology is known for containing one of the most coveted Aztec discoveries of all: the Aztec Sun Stone.

Mexico City's National Museum of Anthropology

The Mystery of the Sun Stone

Ever since its discovery, the enigmatic Sun Stone has become the de facto symbol of the Aztec civilization. You’ll find it depicted on mugs and t-shirts at gift shops all around the country, and it’s even featured on Mexico’s paper currency. There’s still much debate, though, over its original purpose.

The Sun Stone was discovered in the area of the Zocalo, Mexico City’s central public square. The Zocalo is situated just next to the Municipal Cathedral (where it was first displayed after its unearthing), and right by both the Templo Mayor ruins and the National Palace. These are all places built over the former island capital of Tenochtitlan.

The disk, though, was discovered all the way back in the year 1790. That’s nearly two centuries before the Coyolxauhqui disk was found in 1978!

Like the Mayans, the Aztecs had a calendar system which was both very precise and very complex. Parts of the Sun Stone feature aspects of the Aztec calendar, hence its other nickname, the ‘Aztec Calendar Stone.’ But some scholars argue that the disk meant much more, as the Aztec calendar alone could’ve been carved over a much smaller area.

It’s likely that the central message of the disk is to remind people of the mythological story of the ‘four suns,’ or four previous incarnations of the world before our current one.

In each era, various gods took turns being the sun, but for different reasons, humanity faced some kind of calamity and got destroyed. Belief in the story is likely one reason why Aztec rulers were so intent on human sacrifice in order to appease the gods and prevent another calamity.

Though nobody knows for sure, the intimidating face in the center could possibly be Tonatiuh, the current sun of our era. The present and fifth sun, by the way, is prophesied to eventually come to an end at the hand of cataclysmic earthquakes. This is a chilling prophecy, especially considering the string of powerful earthquakes which have recently struck Mexico City.

The size of the Sun Stone is massive, measuring nearly 12 feet in diameter and weighing about 24 tons. Its size has led some to speculate that its original purpose was not to be displayed vertically, but to be placed flat on the ground. Potentially even as a platform for human sacrifice.

Aztec Sun Disk Mexico City
The Zocalo, where the Sun Stone was originally found centuries ago

While the Sun Stone is the main highlight of the Aztec portion of the museum, you’ll find some other fascinating discoveries that were uncovered long before the excavation of Templo Mayor.

Coatlicue Statue
The massive Coatlicue serpent statue

CoatliCue Statue

The statue of the goddess Coatlicue was actually found a couple of months before the Sun Stone in the same area. Standing at 2.7 meters high, the towering statue depicts Coatlicue in one of her fiercer forms as a serpent. Even her skirt is made of snakes!

Stone of Tizoc

This large round stone is named after the emperor Tizoc (1481 – 1486) and was found in 1791. It’s a round and very thick disc with a hole in the middle, probably to capture the blood of sacrificial victims. The top section has a design roughly similar to that of the Sun Stone, although much simpler.

Around the Museum

The Aztec section of the museum contains a number of other rare and impressive artifacts that make it well worth visiting, even after seeing the Templo Mayor Museum.

Anthropology Museum Mexico City

GETTING THERE: The most straightforward way to reach the park and its museums would be to take subway line 1 to Chapultepec Station. But you can also take either a subway (line 7) or a bus to Auditorio Station, which is slightly closer to the Anthropology Museum.

  • Paseo de la Reforma & Calzada Gandhi S/N, Chapultepec
  • 9:00 - 19:00
  • Closed Mon.
  • Mex$ 75
Aztec Sun Disk

Churubusco

Probably the most obscure destination on this list, El Exconvento de Churubusco is situated in Mexico City’s southern Coyoacán district. As the name suggests, this was originally built as a Catholic convent. So what does it have to do with the Aztecs?

While not obvious just by looking at it, the convent was primarily built using material from a destroyed Aztec temple that once sat on the same site. The temple was dedicated to Huitzilopochtli, the patron deity of the Aztecs who we covered above. Nowadays, the convent is instead dedicated to Mary. 

Supposedly, there are some Aztec relics on display on the first floor, but this section seemed to be blocked off during my visit due to earthquake damage.

Churubusco Stone
Stone from a former Aztec shrine

Presently, the ex-convent is home to the Museo Nacional de las Intervenciones, or the Interventions Museum, which is dedicated to the Mexican-American war of 1846-1848. During the war, the convent itself was the site of a bloody battle in which the Mexican troops were able to fend off the American forces. While not of special interest to those on an Aztec archaeological hunt, the building is a reminder of how some remnants of the country’s Aztec past might sometimes be hiding right in plain view.

The museum is most easily reachable via General Anaya Station on subway line 2.

  • 20 de Agosto s/n, San Diego Churubusco
  • 9:00 - 18:00
  • Closed Mon.
  • Mex$ 70
Museo de las Intervenciones Churubusco
No information is provided, but could this be a base of a structure from the original Huitzilopochtli temple?

Tlatelolco

When discussing Aztec history, the former capital city of Tenochtitlan gets most of the attention. But Tenochtitlan had a nearby sister city which was fundamental to the rise of the empire. While Tenochtitlan was the religious and political heart of Aztec society, Tlatelolco long functioned as the main commercial center. It was mainly known for its large market where all sorts of goods, from crops to cacao beans, to valuable jade, were traded.

And like Tenochtitlan, Tlatelolco also had its own pyramid. Similar to Templo Mayor, the various broken staircases are indicative of the multiple layers used to expand the pyramid over time. Tlatelolco’s main pyramid is said to have reached a height of 140 feet. That’s somewhat smaller than Templo Mayor but very impressive nonetheless.

The relationship between Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco, interestingly enough, was not always amicable. Though the city was Aztec, both ethnically and culturally, Tlatelolco also functioned as a semi-autonomous city-state for much of its history. For reasons still unknown, Tenochtitlan waged a war against Tlatelolco in 1473, ending its autonomy once and for all. It’s speculated that the city’s king could’ve at one point staged a rebellion.

Surprisingly, Tlatelolco hardly receives any visitors. But not only is the archaeological site roughly the same size as Templo Mayor, but the ruins of Tlatelolco have a much cleaner look to them. It’s a mystery, then, why these fantastic ruins get so little attention.

Unfortunately, I wasn’t unable to gain access to the main site or its museum due to earthquake damage. Most of the ruins are visible, however, by simply walking along the perimeter.

Today, the area is also commonly known as Plaza de las Tres Culturas. Within the area you can find Aztec, Spanish colonial and post-colonial Mexican architecture.

Diego Rivera Tlatelolco Market
"El mercado de Tlatelolco" by Diego Rivera, on display at the National Palace

In modern times, the fascinating history of the ruins is largely overshadowed by a more recent tragedy. In 1968, just weeks before Mexico City hosted the Olympic games, the government and military violently cracked down on a large protest taking place at the Plaza de las Tres Culturas. Hundreds were killed, and the incident has since been known as the ‘Tlatelolco Massacre.’

Tlatelolco is an absolute must-visit for Aztec history enthusiasts, and it’s easily the most impressive site on this list after the Templo Mayor ruins themselves.

GETTING THERE: The ruins can be reached by taking subway line 3 to the appropriately named Tlatelolco Station. It’s roughly a 5 – 10 minute walk from the station, but you can use the map at the top of the article to avoid getting lost. Tlatelolco is also a common stop on many public bus routes.

Deep Underground

The Aztec creation myth details how at the beginning our current era (the fifth sun), Quetzalcoatl and his brother Tezcatlipoca needed to recreate human beings to inhabit the earth once again. But to do so, they needed to descend down into the underworld to retrieve the old bones of humans from eras past.

The bones, however, were tightly guarded by Mictecacihuatl, the queen of the underworld . She only allowed the brothers to take the bones on the condition that all future humans would live mortal lives and eventually come back to her. 

After the two gods fulfilled her other strict requirements and managed to take the bones, more deception and trickery ensued, causing the bones to fall and break. But this was all Quetzalcoatl had to work with. He had no choice but to bring these imperfect bones up from the underworld in order to recreate civilization.

Mexico City Subway
Ancient artifacts on display at the subway station
A statue of Mictlantecuhtli, husband of Mictecacihuatl

Today, new discoveries are being made all the time in the subterranean underworld below Mexico City’s surface. From stone disks to ritual offerings to the broken bones of sacrificial victims, remnants of the city’s Aztec past continue to emerge from the underground. Just as recently as 2017, in fact, an entire ball court and temple dedicated to the wind god Ehecatl was found near the Zocalo.

Considering Mexico City’s extensive subway system, it’s not surprising that many significant discoveries have been made by workers digging in the underground tunnels. And quite appropriately, you can come across all sorts of ancient artifacts on display at many of the city’s subway stations. While not everything on display is necessarily an Aztec relic from the Tenochtitlan region, it’s still a nice touch. 

We can only expect more to emerge in the near future. Though once ravaged and completely built over, the ancient city of Tenochtitlan has already proven to be a lot more resilient than anyone could’ve expected.

Additional Info

Mexico City’s public transportation system is excellent, and is arguably the best in all of North America. There are three main ways to get around: subway, regular public bus and metrobus.

You can get nearly everywhere, including all the places mentioned in this article, using the subway alone. Regardless of how far you go, tickets cost a flat fee of 5 pesos.

The metrobus is a red-colored bus line which runs along its own dedicated lanes on certain parts of the city. If your destination is serviced by these buses, it can be a quick way to get around. The buses require buying their own special card, however, so they’re not the best value if you’re riding once or twice.

Normal public buses are everywhere in Mexico City, and a quick Google search will direct you to the nearest bus stop you need. The buses are somewhat unreliable, though, and sometimes simply won’t come to your stop with zero explanation given.

Uber also works very well in the city, and is a great way to reach the airport.

If you base yourself somewhere in the Centro district, many significant historical sites will likely be within walking distance.

Mexico City’s public transportation system is very efficient, so generally speaking, you’ll be fine if you base yourself nearby a metro station. However, the city is so big that it can take awhile to get anywhere. The most strategic area to base yourself in to see the main historical places would be the Centro district.

Other neighborhoods that are popular with foreign visitors are the hip Roma and Condesa districts.

I stayed at a basic, no frills hotel called Hotel Costazul. I would recommend this place to people looking for an affordable private hotel room in a convenient location. Located in Centro, it’s a fairly easy walk to the Zocalo and right by a couple of subway stations.



Booking.com

The best way to get to Mexico City would be to fly. The main Benito Juarez International Airport services flights from all around the world.

Coming from within Mexico, many budget airlines service Toluca International Airport instead. Some cheaper flights from abroad also go to the nearby city of Puebla.

Uncovering Mexico City's Aztec Past

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