The Road to Mandalay: 12 Hours on the Irrawaddy River

Last Updated on: 4th November 2019, 06:29 am

It was still dark when I got out of the taxi, somewhat groggy and disoriented after only managing a few hours of sleep. My luggage in hand, I walked down a sandy hill onto the beach of the Nyaung U jetty. From there I carefully made my way across a narrow wooden plank to the boat that would be my home for the next 12 hours. The final destination of my Irrawaddy river cruise would be Myanmar’s second-city of Mandalay. For the rest of the day, though, I was looking forward to getting to know the country’s most important waterway.


With some time to go before daylight, I looked for a seat on the boat’s upper deck which would guarantee a clear view of the sunrise – even if it meant having to brave the early morning cold. Despite the Bagan to Mandalay route being considerably less popular than the other way around, more and more people made their way onto the boat until nearly every seat was occupied.

Finally, the boat’s engines revved up and we officially began the journey. And then, just less than an hour later, the other tired passengers and I gazed out at the beautiful sunrise in relative silence. Just as soon as we began, it seemed, the main event was already over. Or was it?

irrawaddy River Sunrise

After a modest breakfast of an egg, banana and pastry, as well as a much-needed cup of coffee, I found myself unsure of how to pass the rest of the day. Despite our remote location, the 4G signal worked surprisingly well. I pulled out my laptop and tried to do some work.

But something just didn’t feel right.  As we cruised past old pagodas, rural villages and lush greenery, I decided to use my Irrawaddy river cruise as a rare opportunity to take a break from electronic stimulation.

Irrawaddy River Cruise Boat
The view from the boat

Myanmar's Flowing Soul

At over 2,100 kilometers long, the Irrawaddy River is by far Myanmar’s most important body of water. It flows north to south from the mountainous area near the border with China, all the way down to Yangon, before finally spilling into the Andaman Sea. The river has been Myanmar’s most important waterway for thousands of years, and remains one of the country’s main methods of transporting goods to this day.

The river is also home to diverse wildlife, including rare species of fish and birds. And of course, it’s also the body of water from which the beloved Irrawaddy dolphin derives its name. Though critically endangered, these smiling dolphins can still be occasionally spotted in the river, especially in the area north of Mandalay.

Sadly, many dolphins are still falling victim to illegal and brutal ‘electro-fishing’ practices. As more tourists start flooding into Myanmar, though, some locals are optimistic that the financial incentive for dolphin watching tours could outweigh the potential benefits of these archaic hunting methods.

Nyaung U Island
Farmers tend to their crops on an unnamed island in the middle of the Irrawaddy, just outside the town of Nyaung U

The river is also home to a number of fertile islands where agriculture continues to flourish. Though no stops were made during our river cruise, I’d gotten the opportunity the previous day to visit a river island just outside the town of Nyaung U in Bagan

Little infrastructure exists on many of these small islands, with the exception of modest housing for the several families who inhabit them. ‘What’s the name of this island?’ I asked a local resident. ‘It has no name,’ he replied.

During my journey to Mandalay, I observed all kinds of boats transporting lumber, rice and other goods. Some of these loads were being shipped to other towns within Myanmar while some were destined for faraway lands. Thanks to the Irrawaddy’s connection with the Andaman Sea, it also serves as a vital link between Myanmar’s rural villages and the outside world.

Irrawaddy River Village
Irrawaddy River Coal

During my journey to Mandalay, I observed all kinds of boats transporting lumber, rice and other goods. Some of these loads were being shipped to other towns within Myanmar, while some were destined for faraway lands. Thanks to the Irrawaddy’s connection with the Andaman Sea, it also serves as a vital link between Myanmar’s rural villages and the outside world. 

But the Irrawaddy’s significance to the Burmese people extends far beyond just economic.

The River & The Spirits

If you look closely during your Irrawaddy river cruise, you may spot the occasional floating shrine dedicated to U Shin Gyi, Myanmar’s main water deity. U Shin Gyi is one of Burmese culture’s many Nats, or terrestrial spirits that play a significant role in the country’s spiritual traditions. Though animistic in nature, Nat worship has coexisted alongside Theravada Buddhism for the past one thousand years.

Supposedly, U Shin Gyi was a very troubled youth. This all ended when he happened to come face to face with the Buddha himself. He was granted instant enlightenment on the condition that he watch over the Irrawaddy to ensure the safe travels of the river’s many boats and fisherman.

Irrawaddy River Cruise

Even today, villages along the river hold special rituals with the purpose of channeling U Shin Gyi’s spirit through a medium. Many believe his blessings are vital for the wellbeing of Myanmar’s most important waterway, a river which is also currently under threat from a proposed dam project.

The Controversial Dam

A hotly debated topic in Myanmar right now is the fate of a Chinese-backed project to build a number of dams along the Irrawaddy. The plan is overwhelmingly opposed by a majority of the local people due to the serious environmental consequences it could have.

Hundreds of villagers have already been displaced. Yet, the government remains indecisive on whether or not the plan will be carried out, leaving the displaced villagers stuck waiting for the final decision. In the meantime, they remain unable to work on their ancestral land.

Irrawaddy River Cruise Myanmar

The Chinese government claims that it’s already invested hundreds of millions of dollars into the project. The current leadership of Myanmar must now figure out a solution to negotiations which were carried out by the former military government that ruled until 2011.

If they back out now, it could spell trouble for future diplomatic relations with Asia’s largest economy. Myanmar may either have to offer other lucrative projects to China in compensation, or pay China back all of the money – a difficult task for the cash-strapped nation.

There’s no easy solution to the proposed Myitsone Dam project, it seems. But as I looked out at the peaceful scenery around me, the issues surrounding the dam project seemed like a world away.

Irrawaddy River Boat

The Final Hours

After a long stretch of dull and uneventful scenery, we approached what would be one of the most fascinating part of the journey. All of a sudden, large rolling hills topped with golden pagodas crept into view. Massive Buddha statues towered over the river and I could see people, markets and traffic from the boat.

This, I would later learn, is the ancient capital of Sagaing, just south of Mandalay. I would eventually visit Sagaing and walk along the top of those hills, coming face to face with landmarks such as the U Min Thonze cave. Whether or not you make it there, though, the beautiful views of Sagaing from the boat easily make up for the less eventful parts of the Irrawaddy river cruise.

Irrawaddy Cruise Sagaing
Irrawaddy River Cruise Buddha

Shortly after passing Sagaing, the journey down ‘The Road to Mandalay’ was finally complete. We arrived in Myanmar’s bustling second city just before sundown.

 I was expecting to feel exhausted, but got off the boat feeling oddly refreshed. I walked past the taxi mob and hailed a driver down the road for a much better deal. I checked into my hotel and immediately went out to explore the new city on foot. After 12 hours on a boat, all I wanted to do was walk.

Sagaing Irrawaddy River Cruise

Additional Info

GENERAL INFO: The standard Irrawaddy River Cruise, as described above, is run by the company MGRG. This is also referred to as the ‘express’ cruise, as opposed to more luxurious options which can last a few days or longer.

As the article title suggests, it lasts around 12 hours in total and does not make any stops. There are two bathrooms on board which are adequately stocked with toilet paper.

FOOD & DRINK: You’ll be served both a basic breakfast and lunch, but you may also want to pack some of your own snacks.

You’ll be treated to unlimited coffee or tea while both bottled water and beer are available for sale.

HOW TO BOOK: I simply booked the ride at my hotel in Bagan and the tickets cost around USD $30 per person. You should be able to book wherever you’re staying and if not, one of the many tour agencies in town should be able to help you. There’s no need to go to the boat area in advance to purchase a ticket.

TIME: The boat departs at 5:30am but you’ll want to get there early, so I arranged a taxi to pick my friend and I up at the hotel at around 4:30am.

The taxi itself cost 5,000 kyats, or roughly USD $4.

FROM MANDALAY TO BAGAN: The MGRG company also operates Irrawaddy river cruises from Mandalay to Bagan. As this journey is downstream, it lasts around 9 hours instead of 12. 

Ask at your accommodation in Mandalay about booking a ticket.

The departure time for this route is 7am.

Road to Mandalay: 12 Hours on the Irrawaddy River

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